lay no claim to originality in what follows, much of it has been said by others, although rarely in a public forum. Of the few who have dared to publicly question Constantino’s version of Rizal I would recommend, as starting points, Ambeth Ocampo’s Rizal Without The Overcoat and Meaning and History (Both from Anvil Press), and John S. Schumacher’s The Making of A Nation (Ateneo de Manila Press). Renato Constantino’s article, Veneration Without Understanding is available on the internet at http://rizalslifewritings.tripod.com. Constantino’s self-published The Philippines A Past Revisited is still widely available in bookstores. A non-Philippine-based critique of Constantino’s A Past Revisited can be found in Glenn Anthony May’s controversial A Past Recovered (New Day). Rizal’s annotated Las Sucesos de Las Islas Filipinas by Antonio De Morga is still available in English translation as Historical Events in the Philippine Islands at the National Historical Institute on TM Kalaw, Manila. Information on pre-Hispanic Philippines, as well as the Code of Kalantiaw and the Maragtas, can be found in William Henry Scott’s fine Pre-Hispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History (New Day), Behind the Parchment Curtain (New Day) and Barangay (Ateneo De Manila University Press). Rey Ileto’s classic work on history ‘from beneath’, Pasyon and Revolution is a valuable, though not unfaulted, exploration of how the Philippine Revolution may have been viewed by the masses themselves.
Those who wish to study the issue further should consult the primary sources cited in these works. These are not the only sources consulted for the preparation of this article.
Those who wish to have a better grasp of my own biases, prejudices and opinions should refer to Hang The Dogs: The True Tragic History of the Balangiga Massacre (New Day), The Philippine-American War entry in Scribner’s Dictionary of American History, which I contributed, and the Philippine-American War entry in ABS-CLIO’s War Crimes:An Illustrated Encyclopedia, which I also authored.
Any errors of fact or judgment are entirely my own and I apologise in advance. Any political incorrectness is mine too, but there’s no need to apologise for that: As Teodore Agoncillo remarked, “The study of history is not a popularity contest”.