Independence Day Mysteries


Forgive me for borrowing your Independence Day. Being British I don’t have one of my own. Colonized by all and sundry over a thousand years, the Brits never won a war of independence so on June 12 I hang out the red, blue, white and yellow and glue myself to the television to watch the ceremonies along Roxas Boulevard to savor a nation’s pride and hear the eternal arguments about which is the ‘real’ independence day for the Philippines.

Of course, what’s important is not the date, but the meaning. After all, Jesus Christ wasn’t born on December 25, or January 6 according to some Christian church traditions, yet these are still celebrated as his birthday. January 1 was not always New Year’s Day, which was once celebrated in March. New Year’s Eve in 1844 vanished entirely in Manila with December 30 followed by January 1 after the Spanish discovered that their ‘Philippine Time’ was whole day out of whack thanks to sloppy navigation in the 16th century.

Nevertheless, this is the time of year when that hoary old argument between the June 12 supporters and the July 4 supporters gets re-aired like an old blanket in storage. July 4 is the ‘real’ independence day say the latter because it’s the day when the United States granted and recognized the Philippines formal, if not full, independence.

In fact, the United States itself does not celebrate the day of recognition of its independence, but the day in 1776 when it was merely declared, July 4. Its status was not formally recognised by Britain until September 3, 1786 at the end of peace talks in Paris, bring the American insurgency to an end.

So, to accept July 4 as the ‘real’ Philippine Independence Day, one should celebrate American independence on September 3. What’s good for the Philippine goose ought to be good for the American gander.

We have the father of former-President Ate Glo, President Diosdado Macapagal, to thank for the fact that today we honour Independence Day on June 12, or possibly John F. Kennedy, or Professor Gabriel Fabella. In the first place, of course, we have to thank Emilio Aguinaldo.

Inevitably, the Declaration of Independence carries it own baggage of myth and mystery. We often imagine Aguinaldo on June 12 proudly waving the Philippine flag as he declared independence from a balcony that didn’t actually exist until the 1930s. No wonder the carved carabao holding it up looks dazed.

Rear Admiral George Dewey, was invited to the affair but, under orders to avoid contact with the revolutionaries, he decided to read his mail instead.

The actual declaration was made not by Aguinaldo but by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Auditor of War and Special Commissioner designated to make the proclamation.

The sole paleface in the assembly was the mysterious L. M. Johnson, Colonel of Artillery who supposedly signed the Philippine Declaration of Independence but did not.

He is variously described in history textbooks as Dewey’s secretary and the commander of an American artillery unit. He was neither of these – a rear-admiral of the US Navy would hardly have a full US Army colonel as his secretary, and his name does not appear in the roster of the Olympia.

According to American journalist Trumbull White, who attended the celebrations, Johnson was “actually in charge of the ordinance of the insurgent forces”. According to White, Johnson was cheered and born on the shoulders of celebrating Filipinos with enthusiasm.

Who actually was L.M. Johnson? He was a former hotel-keeper from Shanghai who was trying his luck with the Xbox of the time, the cinematograph. He may be the same L. M. Johnson who was a private in the Army of Hawaii in 1894, led by expatriate American businessmen who all seem to be called Dole, which eventually managed to leverage the annexation of Hawaii. L. M. Johnson earned his artillery props at the Battle of Moilili firing a field gun. Apparently a soldier of fortune he also fought in the war between Chile and Peru and elsewhere in South America.

Eventually, Johnson seems to have become a junior partner in an American company that operated a bar called the Alhambra on the Escolta, which was sued for debt in August 1901.

Johnson became volunteer deputy fire chief of Manila and, according to his descendants, went to Japan to learn the pearl fishing industry and eventually died trying to rescue members of his Filipino workforce in a storm.

The next step was the ratification of independence at Malolos on September 29. The description of the fine banquet afterwards is best left to Ambeth Ocampo. There were, fact, two banquets that day, for lunch and dinner and both presenting a minor mystery – how did they freeze the frozen strawberry preserves and Mocha ice-cream and chill the Champagne without ice from an ice-plant? The answer is probably in a long-forgotten bit of simple technology known to the grandparents of our grandparents: The food to be chilled was placed in a wooden pail filled with a chemical that produced and endothermic reaction when mixed with water – it got cold enough to freeze water.

All of which became largely moot with the American occupation of the Philippines and Filipinos would have to wait until October 14, 1943 for its next Independence Day. Okay, so it was issued by the Japanese and wasn’t taken seriously, nevertheless, it was another date on the independence calendar.

Next, of course, came July 4, 1946, with appropriate ceremonies and 21-gun salutes from American, Portuguese and Thai warships in Manila Bay. A qualified independence, yes, but even worse, one to be forever overshadowed by that of the United States itself. Inevitably, that inequity rankled. Philippine embassy parties were rather sparsely attended. As a result, the Philippine ambassador to London decided to hold his shindig a few days earlier and scored a hit.

Historian Gabriel Fabella decided enough was enough and in 1956 first floated the idea of changing Philippine Independence Day to June 12 in the Sunday Times Magazine. Over the next few years he continued to push the idea, but few snapped at the bait. In 1959 the Philippine Historical Society adopted a resolution supporting the change but it remained an idea whose time had yet to come. Significantly, his biggest audience came in 1961 in a radio broadcast from Legaspi City.

Then came a little to-do in 1962 between the Philippines and the United States and Presidents Macapagal and Kennedy respectively. The Philippines refused to allow the importation of American Virginia tobacco and powerful tobacco interests in the US Congress blocked the $73 million War Damage Bill that would fulfill post war promises made to the country. President Kennedy was firmly behind the bill and criticized Congress for its “lack of appreciation of the moral obligation the United States owes to the people of the Philippines”.

At the time, Macapagal was scheduled to visit the US. The visit was cancelled and Macapagal coincidentally remembered that, as a Congressman, he’d thought that Independence Day should be changed to June 12, just like Fabella.

As it happened, there was no law designating July 4 as Independence Day, it was merely a national holiday. As businessmen have become increasingly aware in recent years, Presidents can grant a national holiday at the drop of a hat. Macapagal announced June 12 as a national holiday and sent a bill to the Philippine Congress marked urgent to make the day the statutory independence day.

Emilio Aguinaldo was overjoyed at the change to June 12 and fulsome in his praise for Macapagal. Eyeing the Rizal Monument he wondered aloud to Macapagal whether there would ever be a matching Aguinaldo monument.

Efforts to revive the War Damage Bill were eventually successful, and Macapagal expended a great deal of presidential ink to assure Americans that the whole thing was not done in a fit of pique.

While Filipinos rather enjoyed having their own Independence Day their legislators felt otherwise and wanted to find some celebration for July 4. So it was that July 4 became Republic Day and is today known as Fil-Am Friendship Day, not that many folk take notice. With that bit of horse-trading out of the way, Macapagal could sign Republic Act 4186 on August 4, 1964, a little more than two years after he’d first put the measure to Congress as ‘urgent’.

It was, however, too late for Aguinaldo, who died in February 1964 and let us with an intriguing question:

Why didn’t Aguinaldo sign the Declaration of Independence?

7 thoughts on “Independence Day Mysteries

  1. I read that Aguinaldo and Mabini did not agree to the wording “under the protection of the benevolent United States of America.” Could that be why they did not sign the Declaration? Also, I have not seen the wording of the Declaration as it was supposedly revised to correct the “protectorate” wording. Have you seen it?

  2. This is a very informative and entertaining piece. Thanks for your good work. The piece should see wider distribution, but first correct the typos.

  3. L M Johnson may have been someone entirely different. Since I “portrayed” him at the Aguinaldo Presidential Mansion on June 12, 1998 (the Centennial), I have been doing research (admittedly little) during breaks in my career, It is possible that he was either an early version of what is now called the CIA (or something similar)who supplied arms to the Philippine insurgents. It seems he met General Aguinaldo in Shang-hai during the General’s exile. Since retirement, I have a little more time on my hands and will do some additional research. Thanks for your time and a place for me to provide comments.

  4. You will need to familiarise yourself with Taylor’s “The Philippine Insurgency Against the United States” and the extensive Philippine Insurgency/Revolutionary Records as well as plough through the relevant record groups at the US National Archives.

    You might also go through some books on Chinese cinema history, where Johnson is mentioned.

    Do remember that the US government was very much against any American sending arms to the revolutionaries in Cuba at that time, so they were unlikely to be more benevolent to the Filipinos, and, indeed, at the time of the Pact of Biak Na Bato, the revolutionaries appealed to the US for arms to fight the Spanish and were snubbed totally.

    Good luck with the research and keep us posted.

  5. Oh, something you might find helpful. His name was Lewis M. Johnson, born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, and he apparently managed the Astor House hotel in Shanghai, now known as the Pujiang, where the first cinema shows in Shanghai were shown on 22nd May 1897.

    He was the only American by that name in Shanghai at that time.

    Johnson used a sinified version of his name, Yong Song, for his cinema business.

    Aster House Hotel was immediately oppopsite the American Consulate and a rather smart place to go.Like all hotels of celebrity it had its share of bottom-feeders, crooks, conmen and, significantly, seamen. The hotel had been started for visiting seafarers in 1846 and most of its managers had themselves been seafarers.

    You’d be hard put to find a better place to search for a sea captain to smuggle a load of arms into the Philippines.

  6. Here’s what I know about Lewis M. Johnson, told to me by his grandson, David H. Auringer. He reportedly was made a Brigadier General and served under Arthur MacArthur. He was a fairly good friend of Douglas MacArthur. He had one daughter named Marcella. He was acturally born in Maine, as were his siblings, because his father wanted his children to be U.S. citizens. He was in the pearl business in the Phillipines and spent some time in Japan learning he business. He died as the result of a Typhoon while trying to get his pearl diving boats back to port. He was adrift for a couple of weeks and after he was rescued he died in Manila. He did own or manage a hotel in Shanghai. These are all rememberances of what David was told by his mother, Marcella. After Johnson died she went with her mother to live in her mother’s home in Washington state. Her mother died of Tuberculosis and Marcella was sent to Yarmouth to live with the Johnson or Killan family. She became a nurse and served in France during WW 1 where she met and eventually married Lt. Harold Auringer of Massachusetts. They spent most of their married life in Madison NJ and raised four children, three girls and a boy, David, who has been my closest friend since 1936. He now resides in Atlantic, NC>

  7. At first I was a bit dubious whether this was actually the same person but the reference to Killan and Yarmouth suggest that it is.
    Here’s something from Lake Annis, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia to think about:

    “September 29th, 1908

    The event of the Golden Wedding of Mr. & Mrs. George W. Johnson and Silver Wedding of Mr. & Mrs. J. H. Killam was celebrated all day with appropriate programs, poems suitable for the occasion were read as well as letters from absent friends and members of the family. In the evening the following numbers were given with great pleasure to all present:

    1.Piano Duet Song
    4.Character Song in Costume
    6.Illustration of Hypnotism
    7.Song 1.”La Balladine”
    2.School Days
    3.Highland Fling
    5.My Shadow
    7.Afraid to go Home in the Dark 1.Mrs. Killaan & Mrs. Hatfield.
    2.Misses. Carminita, Gladys Johnson & Miss. Perle Hatfield
    3.Miss. Perle Hatfield
    4.Mrs. Sham. F. Johnson
    5.Miss. Gladys Johnson
    6.Col. Lewis M. Johnson & Chas. F. Johnson,
    7.Misses. Johnson & Hatfield

    The evening entertainment closed with games in which all took part.”

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